Virginia Indian tribes :: History of Virginia

Virginia Indian tribes

May 31, 2017
Cheyenne Indians: Henry Roman

Virginia’s Indian tribes have faced many hurdles within their decades-old pursuit of national recognition. But one individual features long stood within their method — and he’s already been dead for 68 many years.

Walter Plecker — a physician, eugenicist and avowed white supremacist — ran Virginia’s Bureau of Crucial Statistics with single-minded resolve over 34 many years in the 1st 50 % of the 20th century.

Though he died in 1947, Plecker’s shadow nonetheless lingers over the state, a vestige of a vicious age whenever racist methods were a fundamental piece of federal government policy and Virginia officials ruthlessly implemented regulations intended to protect whatever they considered a master white race.

For Virginia’s Indians, the guidelines championed by Plecker threatened their very presence, nearly wiping from tribes which greeted the nation’s first English settlers and who claim Pocahontas as an ancestor. This thirty days, the legacy of these laws could once again assist ruin an endeavor by the Pamunkey individuals get to be the state’s very first federally acknowledged tribe.

Obsessed with all the concept of white superiority, Plecker championed legislation that would codify the idea that people with one drop of “Negro” bloodstream couldn't be categorized as white. Their efforts led the Virginia legislature to pass the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, a law that criminalized interracial relationship and in addition required that every beginning into the condition be taped by battle aided by the only choices being “White” and “Colored.”

Plecker had been proud of what the law states and his role in creating it. It was, he stated, “the many perfect expression associated with white ideal, plus the main eugenical effort that is produced in 4, 000 many years.”

The act performedn’t simply make blacks in Virginia second-class people — it erased any acknowledgment of Indians, who Plecker advertised no further truly existed in the commonwealth. With a stroke of a pen, Virginia ended up being on a path to getting rid of the identification regarding the Pamunkey, the Mattaponi, the Chickahominy, the Monacan, the Rappahannock, the Nansemond together with remainder of Virginia’s tribes.


Going into the Pamunkey booking is an indicator announcing the tribe. The tribe may be the littlest and oldest documented tribe in Virginia. (Timothy C. Wright/For the Washington Post)
The tribal center for Chickahominy tribe is based deeply within the country side of outlying Virginia maybe not not even close to the little town of Providence Forge. (Timothy C. Wright/For the Washington Article)

“He informed us we had no directly to occur as individuals, ” said Powhatan Red Cloud-Owen, a Vietnam veteran who is one of the 850-member Chickahominy tribe. “He attempted to destroy a people like Hitler performed. It was a genocide within this great country of ours.”

‘It ended up being damaging’

Plecker. For Virginia Indians, the name is an expletive.

“i'd call him the villain in our sacred tale, ” claims Karenne Wood, 55, an associate for the Monacan, the biggest of this Virginia tribes with more than 2, 000 members. “As shortly as you raise his name, individuals make bad faces.”

Standing when you look at the graveyard adjacent to the Chickahominy Tribal Center, Steve Adkins, the 69-year-old chief of this tribe in Providence Forge, about 20 miles southeast of Richmond, states he could be pained by what their individuals endured as a consequence of the Racial Integrity Act.


Chickahominy Indian Chief Steve Adkins talks concerning the effect of Walter Plecker regarding the lives of Virginia's Chickahominy tribe and Virginia Native Us citizens. (Timothy C. Wright/For the Washington Post)

“It forbade offering your child an Indian name, ”Adkins states. “And it caused men and women like my mom and dad to need to head to Washington, D.C., become married as Indians.”

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